Bibliography



[picture] Benarz, Dennis. "1608." 1608. N.p., 2003. Web. 08 June 2015. http://spuscizna.org/spuscizna/1608.html

This is a fairly short entry but it offers not only the names of the 6 most popular Poles in the colony but a few other citizens as well. Just like many of the other sources on here it mentions the labor the Polish had done. It also speaks of the tension that arose between the English and Polish during the time of the strike.


[picture] "Countries and Their Cultures." Polish Americans. N.p., 2015. Web. 31 May 2015. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Pa-Sp/Polish-Americans.html

This very long entry covers life of Poles from the beginning of their presence in America all the way to their lives today. It offers a list of various organizations and Polish newspapers as well as focuses on migration waves to America. It also has a list of books that are relevant to my research. I would use this source once again especially if I were to research life of Poles in America after the American Revolution. It heavily covers the immigration waves and reasons for them.


[picture] Dmuchowski, Frank J. "Poles Strike in 1619 for the Right to Vote in the Jamestown Colony - Preparing for the 400th Anniversary in 2019." The Polish Weekly Tygodnik Polski. N.p., 3 Oct. 2014. Web. 10 June 2015. http://www.polishweekly.com/2014/03/poles-strike-in-1619-for-the-right-to-vote-in-the-jamestown-colony-preparing-for-the-400th-anniversary-in-2019/

This is an article from Tygodnik Polski, a Polish newspaper. With the upcoming anniversary of the first strike in America led by the Poles, Dmuchowski provides his own input and insight as to the credentials and validity of Waldo's book, Jamestown True Heroes


[picture] Fortuna, Thomas. "Polish Artisans Strike for the Right to Vote, Jamestown, Virginia, 1619." Polish Artisans Strike for the Right to Vote, Jamestown, Virginia, 1619. N.p., 8 Dec. 2011. Web. 31 May 2015. http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/polish-artisans-strike-right-vote-jamestown-virginia-1619

This entry is very helpful because it focuses on the Polish being brought to Jamestown and their influence on the colony. It mentions all the manufacturing the Polish had done and how the exports helped sustain the colony. It also talks about the labor strike the Poles held which is a prominent event in my presentation. The source is very informative.


[picture] Grizzard, Frank E., and D. Boyd. Smith. Jamestown Colony: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2007. Print.

This book is about the history of Jamestown. Grizzard and Boyd talk about John Smith's life and how he had come across the idea of having Poles work in the colony. This is a very helpful and interesting source because it contains photos, analysis, as well as fragments from old letters and documents.


[picture] Harris-Lockwood, Cassandra, and Ted Rajchel. "Polish Heroes at Jamestown, 1608 - The Utica Phoenix." The Utica Phoenix. N.p., 02 Nov. 2010. Web. 08 June 2015. http://uticaphoenix.net/polish-heroes-at-jamestown-1608/

This work has a little history as to why Jamestown was to be settled and also talks about John Smith's life and how he fled through Poland. It talks about the trading the Polish did with the Indians while at the colony.


[picture] Holshouser, Joshua D., Lucyna Brylinska-Padney, and Katarzyna Kielbasa. "Role of Polish Colonists at Jamestown." Role of Polish Colonists at Jamestown. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 June 2015. http://www.pac1944.org/jamestown/roles-and-accomp.htm

This entry mentions how John Smith decided he would choose Poles as the craftsmen for Jamestown. It not only mentions the exports the Polish had created for Jamestown but talks about other work they did in order to contribute. It also mentions the names of the first and most famous Polish workers to come to Jamestown. This group led the Polonia of the colony. This article is regarded as somewhat speculative by certain scholars.


[picture] "House of Burgesses." House of Burgesses. N.p., 2015. Web. 09 June 2015. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1151.html

This is a U.S History website that covers many eras of United States history. This particular portion of it talked about the House of Burgesses and I just used it to find out the voting requirements that it had established. I needed this information in order to confirm that Poles could not vote. I think this is overall a good website in regards to U.S history and could be used to study as well.


[picture] Morgan, KC. "Labor Strikes That Changed America." All Day. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 June 2015. http://allday.com/post/337-labor-strikes-that-changed-america/

Morgan provides a list as well as some information of many monumental strikes that took place in America. This is where I first read about the slogan the Polish had for their strike and it also explains a little about how it was resolved.


[picture] Obst, Peter J. "First Poles in Jamestown." Jamestown 1608 Marker. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 June 2015. http://www.poles.org/Jamestown_Marker/

Obst wrote this when a marker dedicated to Poles was placed in Virginia. He was at the ceremony and in this work he talks about it as well as provides background information about the Poles the marker is dedicated for. Here he also mentions the "Merchant's Memoir" written by Zbigniew Stefanski.


[picture] Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Margaret. "The Courtly Lives - Poles and Powhatans of Jamestown, Virginia." The Courtly Lives - Poles and Powhatans of Jamestown, Virginia. N.p., 11 June 2003. Web. 09 June 2015. http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/AmPoles.html

Odrowaz-Sypniewska not only talks about the labor that other sources have mentioned but also about the relationship the Poles had with the local Powhatan Indians. She, unlike many other authors, mentions why the Poles had left the colony. I liked this particular work because it offers a wider scope as to the life of the Poles compared to some of the other works. It also verifies information in regards to the names of the original Poles that had come to Jamestown.


[picture] Polish American Congress, Jamestown Pioneers from Poland - 1958 Jamestown Anniversary Book (text only)

This book was published for the 350th Anniversary of the Polish arrival in Jamestown by the Polish American Congress (1958) when Charles Rozmarek was president. It features commentaries, photographs, and reproductions of original documents. Unfortunately, the on-line version has only the text contained in the book.


[picture] Orli, Rick. "1607-1620 Jamestown Light Industry, Jamestown Poles and Dutch-men and Jamestown-related Publications Errors." Jamestown 1608 Sources. N.p., 2006. Web. 09 June 2015. http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/Jamestown%20Primary%20Sources.htm

Rick Orli discusses his research about the first glassmakers in Jamestown and addresses incorrect publishings about the glassmakers being German. Talks about authenticity of the "Memorialium Commercatoris" (Merchant's Memoir) which is a diary written by Zbigniew Stefanski, one of the first craftsmen to come to Jamestown. I like this because Orli talks about the research he has done, lists his sources, provides solid evidence, and is therefore very convincing while arguing that the first glassmakers had been Polish. He does not deny that there were not Prussian workers but just wants to give credit where it is due.


[picture] Seroczynski, Felix. "Poles in the United States." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 31 May 2015 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12204c.htm

This entry focuses on reasons for polish immigration but it also talks about life of the Polish in the colonies such as where they settled and their occupations. It also mentions a Polish anti-slavery group that surfaced in the 1950s. This work consists of Polonia's history from the beginning of America all the way up to the 20th century.


[picture] Stefanski, Zbigniew. Pamietnik Handlowca a.k.a. Memorialium Commercatoris (Merchant's Memoir) published in Amsterdam, Holland, ca. 1625

Missing, no known copy. This memoir allegedly appeared at the end of the 1940s and then disappeared. If genuine, it would be a benchmark source for scholars of Jamestown. Some historians believe it to be a fraud. See "True Heroes of Jamestown" in the Arthur Waldo entry.


[picture] Stevens, Anne. "Pilgrim Ship Lists By Date." Pilgrim Ship Lists By Date. Sharry Anne Stevens Packrat Productions, n.d. Web. 07 June 2015. http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm

This is a list of ships/voyages as well as passengers of those ships. Listed here is the Mary Margaret that left England in 1608 and arrived at Jamestown. I used this source in order to confirm the ship the Poles had been brought in.


[picture] Uminski, Sigmund H. The Polish Pioneers in Virginia, The Polish Publication Society of America, New York, 1974. Jamestown_Pioneers.html

Uminski wrote a great summary book which gathers all the existing theories (with critique of some of the methods used) and his own original research about the Jamestown Poles. There is a lengthy discussion of the probability whether the "Merchant's Memoir" actually exists, and what is actually known about the Jamestown Polish settlers from sources outside this mysterious missing book.


[picture] Waldo, Arthur L. True Heroes of Jamestown. Miami, FL: American Institute of Polish Culture, 1977. Print. Waldo_book.html

Waldo wrote this book in order to familiarize people with the Poles' contributions to Jamestown. He believes that without the Polish, Jamestown would have fallen apart as a colony much sooner than it had. He looks at the research of many historians as well as performs his own. It is great is that Waldo uses the Zbigniew Stefanski's memoir Pamietnik Handlowca as a source, however there are some questions to its credibility.